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Early Bortezomib Therapy for Refractory NMDAR Encephalitis

NMDAR encephalitis is the most common form of autoimmune encephalitis. It can affect people of all ages, though it is often seen in children and young adults, and it affects women more frequently than men. Treatment is classically described as first-line immunotherapy (corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasma exchange) and second-line immunotherapy (cyclophosphamide and rituximab). However, …

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Autoimmune Psychosis

Autoimmune psychosis: an international consensus on an approach to the diagnosis and management of psychosis of suspected autoimmune origin. A group of renowned international physicians, led by Dr. Tom Pollak and senior authors Prof. Souhel Najjar, Prof. Karl Bechter and Prof. Angela Vincent, worked together to create a consensus on diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune …

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Tocilizumab in AE

This week the FDA approved the initiation of a  phase III clinical trial of the oncology supportive care drug Tocilizumab (Actemra – Genentech) for the treatment of hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Tocilizumab is a humanized anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, which blocks IL-6-mediated signal transduction. Given the crucial role of IL-6 in stimulating …

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Clinical approach to the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in the pediatric patient

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important and treatable cause of acute encephalitis. Diagnosis of AE in a developing child is challenging because of overlap in clinical presentations with other diseases and the complexity of normal behavior changes. Existing diagnostic criteria for adult AE require modification to be applied to children, who differ from adults in …

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Comparing autoantibody-negative and autoantibody-positive Autoimmune Encephalitis patients

Early diagnosis of AE allows for aggressive treatment, which greatly improves recovery outcomes. On the contrary, delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to permanent brain injury or even loss of life. In literature, no work has been published which compares clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics of patients with definite autoantibody-positive AE (AE+) and autoantibody-negative AE (AE-). …

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